News from CNEWA
Report on the Plight of Christians in Egypt Posted: Feb 3 2011 12:00AM
I. General Overview
Christianity in Egypt dates to the first century, when Saint Mark preached in the great city of Alexandria. Christianity became the dominant religion in Egypt in the fourth century and remained so even well after the Islamic invasion in the seventh. Some authorities believe Islam only eclipsed Christianity in the middle Ages.
Today, Egypt’s Copts are an endangered minority. Exposed to continuous and subtle pressures, their numbers are dwindling. Tens of thousands emigrate each year; no official figures are available, but reliable sources count 2 million living in Australia, Canada, Europe, Great Britain and the United States. Thousands of Copts who remain in Egypt convert to Islam every year to escape marginalization and/or discrimination. Those who stay faithful to their religion find themselves increasingly alienated in their own country.
Despite their significant numbers estimated at around 8 million, the Copts live as a marginalized and disadvantaged religious minority. In Egypt, Islam is the religion of the state and Islamic law — Shariah — is the principal source of legislation, according to the Egyptian Constitution. This marginalization is notably reflected by the absence of Copts in positions of elected or appointed political office. As a consequence of their lack of political power, the Coptic Christian population is vulnerable to various forms of oppression, discrimination and violence. Forms of oppression include; abusive practices of local police and security forces, by the refusal of security officials to defend them or to prosecute those who have attacked them, and by systematic and discriminatory Egyptian government policies. One particular form of violence against the Coptic Community is the disappearance followed by forced conversions and marriages of Coptic Christian women.
Year after year, the Christians of Egypt continue to endure violent attacks from Muslim radicals. While the government does not openly maltreat Christians, it discriminates against them and hampers their freedom of worship; government agencies sporadically harass Muslim converts to Christianity. Further, the government enforces restrictions on the construction or repair of churches, restrictions that do not apply to mosques. Thus, many new communities do not have churches.
The political atmosphere and the pressure against Christians are increasing the fears among all Christian communities in Egypt. The urgent need is to support the local church without any distinction between confessions or rites in order to reactivate the churches’ social and pastoral institutions for the purpose of filling the gap created by the political, social and economic discrimination of the government against Christians.
The last quarter of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty first have seen deterioration in relations between Muslims and the Coptic minority in Egypt. This is seen in day-to-day interactions such as the insulting of Coptic priests by Muslim children, and in much more serious events such as attacks on Coptic churches, monasteries, villages, homes and shops, particularly in Upper Egypt from the 1970’s to-date.
Area & Targeted Population
Copts are native Egyptian Christians, mainly Orthodox, who currently make up around 10% of the population of Egypt — the largest religious minority of that country. While Copts have cited instances of harassment throughout their history, human rights groups have noted “growing religious intolerance” and sectarian violence against Coptic Christians in recent years, and a failure by the Egyptian government to effectively investigate properly and prosecute those responsible.
Christian Copts are under severe pressure and siege, and usually live in fear for their lives. Christian girls get kidnapped by shadowy Muslim groups and lured into Muslim marriages, while the state looks the other way.
Copts face discrimination and marginalization on many levels. They are minimally represented in law enforcement, state security and public office, and are being discriminated against in the workforce on the basis of their religion. The Coptic community, as well as several human rights activists and intellectuals, note that the number of Christians occupying Government posts is not proportional to the number of Copts in Egypt. They are also the victims of discriminatory religious laws, anti-Christian judges, and anti-Christian state police. Anti-Christian laws include laws governing repairing old churches or constructing new ones, which are usually impossible tasks, requiring presidential permission to build a new church, and a governor’s permission to renovate even the bathroom in an already-built church. Anti-Christian judges tend to “legislate from the bench”. An example includes an Egyptian court’s refusal to grant Muslim Egyptians who convert to Christianity identity cards that display their new religion. In Egypt the government does not officially recognize conversions from Islam to Christianity; also certain interfaith marriages are not allowed either. This prevents marriages between converts to Christianity and those born in Christian communities, and also results in the children of Christian converts being classified as Muslims and given a Muslim education. While, converting to Islam does not even require going to court.
Copts are denied equal opportunities in recruitment and promotion. Very few are appointed to key positions in the government, and political parties almost never choose Coptic candidates for parliamentary positions. In addition, enrollment of Copts in police academies and military schools is heavily restricted. Along the same lines, very few Copts are granted positions as school teachers or university professors.
Copts are on the receiving end of anti-Christian hate crimes, the number of which has been rising since the 1970s. Since President Mubarak took office in 1981, more than 1,500 violent attacks against Copts left thousands of Christians killed and injured. The violent anti-Christian attacks in Upper Egypt during the 1990s forced thousands of Copts to flee to larger cities in Egypt or to immigrate. The last 20 years witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale of anti-Christian hate crimes.
Today, Fundamentalism has reached a peak and allowed an ugly atmosphere of fanaticism to prevail in the country which has been translated into acts of violence targeting the Christian population, the worst of which were;
The Press Office of the Catholic Church in Egypt and spokesman of the seven Catholic denominations that are present in the country, headed by Father Rafic Greiche released a communiqué following the January 2011 Alexandria bombing listing nine demands.
Copts complain that the Egyptian government and the Egyptian judicial system are doing little to punish such attacks on the Coptic community, failing to prosecute the criminals, and thus leading to further oppression of the Copts. All the criminals responsible for the 2001 Kosheh killing, (a village 300 miles south of Cairo in southern Egypt’s Sohag governate where 21 Christians were killed and 260 homes and businesses destroyed or looted), most of whom were children and women, were set free by court order.
Coptic women and girls are sometimes abducted, forced to convert to Islam and marry Muslim men. In April 2010, a bipartisan group of 17 members of the U.S. Congress expressed concern to the State Department’s Trafficking in Persons Office about Coptic women who faced physical and sexual violence, captivity, exploitation in forced domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation, and financial benefit to the individuals who secure the forced conversion of the victim.
The lives of Coptic women subjected to forced marriages and conversions usually remain so heavily burdened with social and legal problems after they have escaped from their Muslim husbands and in-laws that anything like a normal life is impossible. Because of their conversion to Islam, they were given new identity cards listing their religion as Islam. While they may be successful in obtaining a divorce from their Muslim husbands, they are rarely able to obtain a reversal of their religious status. Thus, conversion to Islam is considered non-retractable and any attempt to revert to one’s faith of origin is considered a form of apostasy — a capital offense according to Islamic law. Because re-conversion is not permissible, it is impossible for Coptic women returning to Christianity to obtain new identity cards. Identity cards, which carry a person’s religion, are required in Egypt and are necessary for employment, education, and access to public services. The Egyptian government’s intransigence carries wide-ranging consequences for those women wishing to resume their lives as Christians.
As the country develops, Egyptian children face new challenges, while the old tragedies of poverty continue to haunt 40 percent of families. Thousands are born into poverty, where malnutrition at a young age translates into lifelong health problems. The pressures of meeting daily financial obligations force many families to put their children to work, often in hazardous occupations that jeopardize their health as well as their futures. As a result of more family units breaking apart, there is an increase in the number of children living on the streets.
Egypt, one of the larger countries in Africa, has a population of 80 million people, 20 million of whom are children with ages 14 and younger. Many of these children are abandoned and live on the streets or in the few centers that the Egyptian government has created for its homeless. The fact that the Egyptian law is influenced by Islamic jurisprudence (sharia), all street children enrolled at any government centers are given an Islamic name and religion, regardless of their religion.
In Egypt, both civil and Islamic law forbids adoption. Islamic law does not permit an orphan to take on the family name of a non-biological parent. Foster parents can support the child financially and raise him or her in their home, but fostering remains the only option. Due to Islam's rigid rules governing relationships between males and females, foster parents may not keep an orphan in their home beyond puberty.
However, under Egyptian law, there is no provision for adoption by Christian families. Christian families who want to adopt a child must therefore take him or her from a church rather than from a governmental orphanage. Such church institutions taking care of children do not receive any support from the government and the survival of these orphanages depends highly on the charity of independent donors.
Churches & Religious Institutions
Despite constitutional guarantees regarding religious freedom, Copts regularly face discrimination. Furthermore, it is in practice virtually impossible for Copts to build new churches and/or religious institutions and even to repair or extend their existing churches, whereas no such difficulties exist for the building of new mosques.
The rehabilitation of churches requires a permit from regional governors. The construction of new churches requires the approval of the president and a permit to build one can take as long as ten years — and may never be secured. However, even if the president approves such a request, security forces must investigate to see if the Muslim community does not object. If it does, the church may not be built.
Further Concerns of the Christian Community Following the Recent Unrest
Since January 25, 2011 to-date, Egypt faces the largest demonstrations seen in the country since the 1977 “Bread Riots” drawing participants from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds and faiths. The demonstrations started in the weeks after the Tunisian uprising. Grievances for Egyptian protesters have focused on legal and political issues including police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections and free speech, and corruption as well as economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages. Demands from protest organizers included rights of freedom and justice, the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, and a new government that represents the interests of the Egyptian people.
On the international level, Church leaders are watching the unfolding political drama in Egypt with a mixture of hope for reform and concern over potential violence.
On the domestic level, the Christian Egyptians’ political position remains unclear as Mubarak’s opponents include both radical and moderate Muslim groups, and it is unclear who might assume power if the president resigns.
CNEWA/Pontifical Mission staff contacted some church institutions and leaders in Egypt regarding the stance of the church of Egypt in view of the current political and security situations, summarized as follows:
1) On the Political Level:
2) On the Security Level:
3) On the Social level
III. Addressing the Needs
Despite being a minority, Egypt’s Copts have exerted influence and enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to their numbers. It was perhaps because of this situation, which is often a characteristic of religious minority communities around the world, that they became increasingly marginalized, discriminated against and demoted to the status of second-class citizens. Under Gamal Abdel Nasser’s socialist and Pan-Arab regime, they were targeted ruthlessly because of their control of around half the national wealth, giving rise to a continuous wave of emigration that continues to this day.
Throughout its history the church suffered a slow decline, which later around the middle of the 20th century experienced an unprecedented revival. This spiritual renaissance began with the Coptic Orthodox Sunday School movements in Cairo, Giza and Assiout. Today, Copts continue to have active youth groups that emphasize religious education as well as providing social interaction. These gatherings are considered to be a very important religious element to all the Coptic families. Coptic children usually join at an early age and continue to participate in them throughout their adolescence.
It has been primarily through the religious institutions of the local church — which shelter, educate, spiritually enlighten and guide the poor and disadvantaged Christian population — that Egyptian Christianity has been preserved.